MATCD(4) FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual (i386 Architecture)

NAME

matcd - Matsushita (Panasonic) Compact Disc drive driver


SYNOPSIS

device matcd
In /boot/devices.hints:
hint.matcd.[0-3].at="isa"
hint.matcd.[0-3].port="address"


DESCRIPTION

The matcd driver controls the CR-562 and CR-563 Compact Disc drives made by Matsushita-Kotobuki Electronics Industries, or Matsushita for short. These drives were sold under the Panasonic (which is a trade name for Matsushita), Creative Labs (omniCD) and Reveal names, and were also included in computers that were made by Tandy, GRiD, Victor, AST, Packard Bell and many other brands.

The drives are compatible with the major the Compact Disc standards, including CD-DA (Red Book - Digital Audio on pressed media), CD-WO (Orange Book Part II - Write-Once media), CD-ROM (Yellow Book - Data Storage), and the Kodak Photo-CD system. The drives have some support related to CD-ROM XA and CD-I (Green Book) audio and data requirements.

These drives connect to the PC ISA bus through a simple (but proprietary) host interface. The host interface has been manufactured as a standalone adapter card, or included on a sound card or other multi-function adapter card. The matcd driver supports up to four host interfaces with up to four drives on each interface. CD-DA (digital audio) activity may occur on all drives simultaneously.

The drive hardware supports a "bus disconnect" system similar to that found in SCSI, and this allows simultaneous data read operations to be in progress on multiple drives on the same host interface, but the driver currently limits read operations to one active drive per host interface at a time. Despite this, all four drives on a given host interface are able deliver data at their full rated transfer rate for sequential blocks simultaneously, thanks to a modest read-ahead buffer in each drive.


DRIVER INSTALLATION

The matcd driver can be directly linked into the FreeBSD kernel, or exist as a loadable FreeBSD kernel module. The kernel module can be loaded or unloaded at any time using the kldload(8)/kldunload(8) commands.

For most configurations, the matcd driver should be used as a loadable kernel module and need not be linked into the kernel. However, if you are attempting to do an install from a CD-ROM/CD-WO disc that is initiated from a non-FreeBSD operating system or you have a BIOS boot capability for this type of Compact Disc drive, having the driver already in the kernel can simplify the installation process.

if you determine that you need to have the matcd driver linked into the kernel, it is necessary to add an entry to the kernel configuration file and generate a new kernel. The FreeBSD kernel source tree comes with the file /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC. You should make a copy of this file and give the copy the name of your system, such as "MYSYSTEM". You can then edit the new file to include devices you want the system to include in the basic kernel and delete the device entries for drivers that you don't want included. Eliminating drivers for hardware that you don't have can reduce the size of the finished kernel.

To include the matcd driver to the configuration file, you will need to add this entry:

device matcd

and after making any other adjustments, save the file.

Then generate a new kernel by using the config(8) command and follow all of the instructions that are displayed. If the kernel completely builds, use the "make install" command and then reboot the system for that new kernel to become operational.


DRIVER CONFIGURATION

Regardless of whether the matcd driver is linked into the kernel or is used as a loadable kernel module, the number of host interfaces that the driver will expect (or search for) is dictated by the number of entries present in the file /boot/device.hints. For example, in order to support two host interfaces, you would include entries like:
hint.matcd.0.at="isa"
hint.matcd.0.port="0x230"
hint.matcd.1.at="isa"
hint.matcd.1.port="0x260"

Each set of entries designates a different matcd host interface, and where the I/O ports on that host interface adapter are located.

(If you only want a single entry, include only the hint.matcd.0 items, while add hint.matcd.2 and hint.matcd.3 as needed to support three or four host interfaces.)

Note that the two hint.matcd.0 entries in the /boot/device.hints file are all that you need to support up to four drives on a single host interface.

If the address parameter of a hint.matcd.n.port="address" entry in /boot/device.hints file is set to "-1", the matcd driver searches for the host interface adapters by using a table of known I/O ports on Creative host adapters contained in the driver itself (see /usr/src/sys/dev/matcd/options.h).

Although the multiple port scan allows the matcd driver to work with many different types of host adapters without adjustments, using this mechanism has the potential to cause problems when your system has other devices that are located at the I/O ports that the driver will check for potential matcd host interfaces. The automatic search also significantly increases the amount of time it takes to boot or to load the kernel module.

If you are having problems with the matcd driver interfering with other adapters while it is probing for hardware, or you don't like the additional amount of time it takes for the entire search of I/O ports to complete, you can solve this by explicitly specifying where all the matcd host interfaces are located.

Traditionally, Creative Labs SoundBlaster cards have the Matsushita Compact Disc drive host interface located at I/O port 0x230, which is always 0x10 above where the first I/O port for the audio section of the card (0x220).

If you have determined exactly where the Matsushita I/O ports start on your system, specify the port by setting the hint.matcd.n.port="address" entry at the kernel boot prompt, or by editing the entry in the /boot/device.hints file.

If you make a change to the /boot/device.hints configuration file while the system is running, it is currently necessary to reboot the system before the updated values take effect.


SUPPORTED HARDWARE

At this time, there are only two known drive models that work with the matcd driver:
Matsushita CR-562-x
Matsushita CR-563-x
Most resellers leave these original markings on the drives since the label also has the FCC, VDE, CSA and RU certification marks.

Both of these drive models have motorized trays. There is also a custom version of these drives that does not have the volume control or headphone jack (seen on some Tandy computers), but this drive also works with matcd. On drives that lack a front headphone jack, audio from discs can still be obtained at line level via a connector on the rear of the drive.

The Matsushita CR-522-x and CR-523-x Compact Disc drives are not usable with matcd. The CR-522 and CR-523 models can also be identified from the front as they both require a CD-caddy.

Later versions of Matsushita and "Creative" Compact Disc drives use a basic IDE interface, so these other drives must use an IDE driver, such as ata(4).

The TEAC CD-55 4X Compact Disc drive also uses the same Creative/Panasonic electrical interface, but the TEAC drive is not command set compatible with the Matsushita CR-56x drives. The TEAC drive cannot be used with matcd.

The most common source of host interface adapters for the Panasonic drives was found in products from Creative Labs, including SoundBlaster sound cards. There are numerous models of SoundBlaster sound cards, and most of the newer cards provide the appropriate interface, sometimes labeled as the "Creative/Panasonic" interface.

The following host interface adapters are known to work with the matcd driver:

Creative Sound Blaster Pro (SBPRO) (CT1330A)
Creative Sound Blaster 16 (CT1730)
Creative Sound Blaster 16 - cost-reduced (CT1740)
Creative OmniCD upgrade kit adapter card - stand-alone CD (CT1810)
Creative Sound Blaster 16 - 2-layer, cost-reduced (CT2230)
Creative Sound Blaster 16 (Vibra16) - 2-layer, single-chip (CT2260)
Creative Sound Blaster 16 Value (SB16) - 2-layer, cost-reduced (CT2770)
Creative PhoneBlaster SB16 + Sierra 14.4K Voice/FAX/Data/Speakerphone modem combo (CT3100)
Reveal (SC400)
Caution: Some of these sound boards can be optionally manufactured to not include the Panasonic/Creative interface connector and electronics, so check the board visually to verify that the "Creative" or "Panasonic" drive connector is actually there before buying the card solely based on model number.

This is by no means a complete list as Creative Labs and other vendors that produce sound cards with an identical Creative/Panasonic drive interface released many versions of compatible adapters.

In addition to Creative Labs adapters, adapters that are compatible with Media Vision, IBM and Lasermate adapters are also supported. However, these adapters use a wide range of I/O port addresses, so the driver must be reconfigured to locate these adapters, at least initially.


SUPPORTED OPERATIONS

The matcd driver supports block and character access. Partition "a" returns 2048-byte User Data blocks from data CDs. Partition "c" returns the full 2352-byte Frames from any type of CD, including audio CDs. (Partition "c" cannot be "mounted" with cd9660 or other standard filesystem emulators.) No other partitions are supported.

The matcdl devices work the same as the normal matcd devices except that the drive trays are locked and remain locked until all of the devs on that drive are closed.

Matcd accepts numerous ioctl() commands, including functions related to Compact Disc audio and drive tray control features. The commands are:

DIOCGDINFO get disklabel.
CDIOCREADSUBCHANNEL report the current optical pick-up position and sub channel data.
CDIOCREADTOCHEADER reads table of contents summary from the disc.
CDIOCREADTOCENTRYS reads length/size and other control information for an individual track.
CDIOCPLAYTRACKS plays audio starting at a track/index and stopping at a track/index.
CDIOCPLAYBLOCKS plays audio starting at a block and stopping at a block.
CDIOCPLAYMSF plays audio starting at a particular time offset.
CDIOCPAUSE pauses a playing disc.
CDIOCRESUME resumes playing a previously paused disc. Ignored if the drive is already playing.
CDIOCSTOP stops playing a disc.
CDIOCEJECT opens the disc tray.
CDIOCCLOSE closes the disc tray.
CDIOCPREVENT blocks further attempts to open the drive door until all devices close or a CDIOCALLOW ioctl is issued.
CDIOCALLOW unlocks the drive door if it was locked. This ioctl is rejected if any locking devices are open, so it must be issued via a non-locking device.
CDIOCGETVOL returns the current volume settings of the drive.
CDIOCSETVOL sets the volume settings of the drive.
CDIOCSETSTEREO the left channel audio is sent to the left channel output and the right channel audio is sent to the right channel output. This is the default state. (Note that the drive does not have a documented "Mono" mode, where L combined with R audio from the disc is sent to both the left and right output channels.)
CDIOCSETMUTE the audio output is to be turned off. The drive continues to read the audio on the disc and that audio is discarded until the audio routing is turned back on.
CDIOCSETLEFT the left channel audio is to be sent to the left and right channel outputs. The right channel audio signal is discarded.
CDIOCSETRIGHT the right channel audio is to be sent to the left and right channel outputs. The left channel audio signal is discarded.
CDIOCSETPATCH the audio is to be routed as specified in the provided bit maps.
CDIOCSETPITCH the playback speed of the audio is increased or decreased (for Karaoke "off-key" applications). Speed can be adjusted +/-13%.
CDIOCCAPABILITY report the capabilities of the drive and driver. Results are returned as shown in /usr/include/sys/cdio.h.
The ioctl() commands defined above are the only ones that the matcd driver supports.


FILES

/dev/matcd[0-15]a Used to access 2048-byte blocks of data on a Compact Disc that is recorded in the Mode 1 Form 1 format.
/dev/matcd[0-15]la Used to access 2048-byte blocks of data on a Compact Disc that is recorded in the Mode 1 Form 1 format and disables the disc eject controls.
/dev/matcd[0-15]c Used to access 2352-byte frames on a Compact Disc recorded in any format.
/dev/matcd[0-15]lc Used to access 2352-byte frames on a Compact Disc recorded in any format and disables the disc eject controls.
/boot/devices.hints Specify the number of host interfaces and host adapter I/O port locations that matcd should examine.
/usr/src/sys/dev/matcd/* Source code for matcd.
/usr/src/sys/dev/matcd/options.h Contains all of the compilation options for matcd.


NOTES

The various Creative/Panasonic host interface adapters do not use interrupts or DMA although the drives themselves are equipped to allow both to be used.

If the disc tray is opened while one or more partitions are open, further I/O to all partitions on the drive will be rejected until all partitions are closed. This prevents a disc change from going undetected by higher levels of the operating system.

There must be a drive on each host interface that is addressed as physical drive 0. (Jumpers on the back of the drive control this setting.) If there is no physical drive 0, the matcd driver will be unable to detect that host interface or any of the drives connected to that host interface.

It is not necessary to have four drives attached to the first host interface before being able to activate a second host interface, but each interface must have at least one drive and it must jumpered to be drive 0.

Drives on a second host interface are considered logical drive numbers 4 through 7, drives 8 through 11 are on the third interface and 12 through 15 are on the fourth. The first drive on the second host interface is always logical drive 4 regardless of how many drives are present on the first host interface.

Host interfaces are numbered as specified in the /boot/devices.hints file.


SEE ALSO

/usr/include/sys/cdio.h, kldload(8), kldunload(8)


AUTHORS

The driver and documentation was written by Frank Durda IV. Program and Documentation are Copyright 1994, 1995, 2002, 2003 All rights reserved.


HISTORY

The matcd driver originally appeared in FreeBSD 2.0.5.



FreeBSD 5.1 May 10, 2003 FreeBSD 5.1